Carbon nanostructures comprise a wide range of materials with carbon nanotubes and graphene being the undisputed leaders. Carbon nanotubes can be imagined as tiny hollow tubules, whereas graphene is just a single sheet of carbon atoms. What makes their structure special is the way how individual carbon atoms are joined together at the atomic level. Both inidividual carbon nanotubes or graphene flakes are unimaginably small and are tens of thousands times thinner than a human hair. As a consequence of that unique structure, carbon nanotubes or graphene give unparalled performance with features unobserved before when assembled into macroscopic objects.
Individual carbon nanotubes or graphene sheets are much more thermally and electrically conductive than copper. Moreover, they are significantly stronger than steel at just a fraction of its weight. Last but not least, their surface is truly multi-functional and able to provide many desired properties for common materials around us.
Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene are considered as the most-promising solution to many key energy-related problems.